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Учебное пособие Для студентов вузов Кемерово 2010 - страница 3





Adjectives

western

западный

southern

южный

common

общий, общепринятый, обыкновенный

singular

единственный

plural

множественный

temperate

умеренный

diverse [dai'və:s]

иной, отличный от чего-л.

native

родной

deep

глубокий

opposite

противоположный

legislative ['leGislətiv]

законодательный

executive [ig'zekjutiv]

исполнительный

judicial [Gu(:)'diS(ə)l]

судебный; законный

Primary ['praim(ə)ri]

главное, основное
^ balmy ['bɑːmɪ]
благоуханный

abundant [ə'bʌndənt]

обильный, богатый

responsible

ответственный

ubiquitous [ju(:)'bikwitəs]

вездесущий; повсеместный


^ Ex. 3. Read the words and say what part of speech they belong to and what words they are derived from.

Usually, entirely, borders, the highest, written, mixed, natural, leading, standardize, widely taught, chose, planner, dining, smaller, the largest, government, employer


Ex. 4. Practise conversion. Fill in blank spaces of the table with correct words. Consult the dictionary if necessary.

stretch

растягивание,

усилие

to stretch

_______


square

квадрат, площадь

to square

_______


border

_______


to border

граничить, окаймлять

land

_______


to land

приземляться, высаживаться на берег

phrase

_______


to phrase

выражать

словами

treat

удовольствие, развлечение

to treat

_______


form

форма, фигура, класс (в школе)

to form

_______


plant

растение, саженец

to plant

_______


look

_______


to look

смотреть,

глядеть

branch

ветвь, филиал, отрасль

to branch

_______


change

_______


to change

менять

call

_______


to call

звать, навещать

trade

занятие, ремесло, торговля

to trade

––––––


^ Ex. 5. Find in the texts given below the words formed with the help of conversion and state what part of speech they belong to.


Ex. 6. Choose the word that is similar or synonymous to the underlined word.

1. entire

total

large




2. stretch

state

widen




3. area

space

district




4. feature

future

peculiarity




5. various

different

obvious




6. beverage

spirit

drink





Ex. 7. a) Read and translate into Russian the following N+N word combinations.

Plant life, export commodity, apple pie, breakfast beverages, fast food establishments, city planner.


b) Make up sentences with these word combinations.


Ex. 8.

a) Make up as many word combinations as you can choosing from A and B. Translate them into Russian.

A) B)

western

feature

total

mountain

long

hemisphere

new

language

wide

economy

geographic

continent

temperate

climate

high

area

federal

range

political

time

well-developed

government

trading

infrastructure

foreign

research

growing

party

scientific

partners


b) Make up sentences with these word combinations.


Ex. 9. Read and translate the sentences into Russian paying special attention to the different meanings of the underlined words.

1. We can call the United States of America both the USA and America.

2. In one city you can find people both from China and European countries.

3. American people eat both national and immigrants’ dishes.

4. There are different kinds of plants and animals on both sides of the Grand Canyon.

5. It is difficult to find either a park or a square in Washington without a monument or a memorial.

5. At the Institute students can learn either English or German.

6. I have never been to New York. My friend hasn’t been either.

7. The USA borders neither Turkey nor France.

8. He is neither fish nor flesh.

9. Would you like to eat an apple pie or a hamburger? Neither. I’d like to eat pizza.


Ex. 10. Insert a suitable word from the box.

1. It occupies the southern part of North America and ……. from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean.

2. The people of the United States are a ……. of many different nationalities.

3. The climate is … in most areas.

4. The federal government ……. of three branches.

5. Mainstream American culinary arts are ……. to those in other Western countries.

6. After sailing 4000 miles (6400 kilometers) Christopher Columbus ……. some land.

7. The Grand Canyon is one of America’s main tourist ……. .

8. Washington is smaller ……. than the largest cities of the United States.

9. Washington, D.C. has a growing, diversified economy with an ……. percentage of professional and business service jobs.

10. George Washington ……. the place where the city now stands to build the capital.


mixture, in size, chose, reached, stretches, is composed, attractions, similar, temperate, increasing.


^ Ex. 11. Read and translate the texts into Russian.


The United States of America


The United States of America usually referred to as the United States, the USA, the U.S. or America, is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). The United States is situated almost entirely in the western hemisphere. It occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the USA is about nine and a half million square kilometers. The country borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea-border with Russia.

Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492. We don’t know much about the man. He was born in Italy but lived in Spain for a long time. After sailing 4000 miles (6400 kilometers) he reached some land. Columbus thought that it must be India but it was not. It was a new land, a new continent. It was America.

The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The population of the country is about 250 million. The people of the United States are a mixture of many different nationalities. In the past, people from many countries came to the US. These different people brought to their new land a wonderful mixture of customs and traditions.

The phrase "the United States" was originally treated as plural (the United States are…). However, it became common to treat the name as singular – e.g., "the United States is" – after the end of the Civil War. The singular form is now standard, while the plural form is retained in the set idiom «these United States ».

Because of the United States' large size and wide range of geographic features, nearly every type of climate is represented. The climate is temperate in most areas.

If you look at the map of the USA you can see both lowlands and mountains. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada.

America’s largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande and the Columbia. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest and deepest in the USA. The Grand Canyon is one of America’s main tourist attractions. The Colorado River formed it over millions of years. There are different kinds of plants and animals on opposite sides of the canyon.

The smallest U.S. state by area is the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Alaska is the largest state of the United States by area.

The United States is a constitutional republic. The federal government is composed of three branches:

Legislative. The Congress, made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives, makes federal laws, declares war, approves treaties, has the power of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government.

Executive. The president is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law, and appoints the Cabinet and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies.

Judicial. The Supreme Court and lower federal courts, whose judges are appointed by the president with Senate approval, interpret laws and can overturn laws they deem unconstitutional.

Americans are very proud of their Constitution. It was written more than 200 years ago and is still working! But the people of the USA can change the Constitution. Changes are called amendments. There are 26 amendments in the Constitution. The first 10 amendments are called the Bill of Rights.

There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republican and the Democratic.

The United States has a capitalist mixed economy, which is fueled by abundant natural resources, a well-developed infrastructure, and high productivity. Canada, China, Mexico, Japan, and Germany are its main trading partners. The leading export commodity is electrical machinery, while vehicles constitute the leading import.

English is de facto the national language. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws standardize English. About 215 million, or 82% of the population aged five years and older, speak only English at home. Spanish, spoken by over 10% of the population at home, is the second most common language and the most widely taught foreign language.

Mainstream American culinary arts are similar to those in other Western countries. Wheat is the primary cereal grain. Traditional American cuisine uses ingredients such as turkey, white-tailed deer venison, potatoes, sweet potatoes, corn, squash, and maple syrup. Characteristic dishes such as apple pie, fried chicken, pizza, hamburgers, and hot dogs derive from the recipes of various immigrants. Americans generally prefer coffee to tea. U.S. industry is largely responsible for making orange juice and milk ubiquitous breakfast beverages. Frequent dining at fast food establishments is associated with what health officials call the American "obesity epidemic."

American cultural icons are apple pie, baseball, and the American flag.

The US national flag – Stars and Stripes – Is red, white and blue. Thirteen stripes represent the original 13 states of the US; the 50 stars represent the current number of states. People must know many things about the flag, for example: you should display it only during the day and you should fold it in a special way. Americans are proud of their flag and display it in many places.


Washington


Washington, D.C. (/ˈwɒʃɪŋtən diːsiː/) (formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D.C.) is the capital of the United States, founded on July 16, 1790. When people speak about the capital of the USA they always say Washington DC, not to mix up with the state Washington in the north-west of the country. The city is located on the north bank of the Potomac River and is bordered by the states of Virginia to the southwest and Maryland to the other sides.

Washington, D.C. has a total area of 68.3 square miles (177 km2). The District has three major natural flowing streams: the Potomac River, the Anacostia River, and Rock Creek. Both the Anacostia River and Rock Creek are tributaries of the Potomac River.

George Washington, the first American president, chose the place where the city now stands to build the capital, and the city was named after George Washington.

Washington, D.C. is a planned city. The design for the City of Washington was largely the work of Pierre Charles L’Enfant, a French-born architect, engineer, and city planner who first arrived in the American colonies as a military engineer.

Washington has a lot of interesting things to see and it is difficult to find a park, a square or any open area there without a monument or a memorial. The best-known ones are the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument. Washington has many other famous buildings – the Library of Congress, the Capitol, the National Gallery of Art and others.

Washington is smaller in size than the largest cities of the United States such as New York, Chicago, Detroit or Los Angeles. The population of the capital is about 11 million people. The buildings in Washington are not tall because no buildings must be taller than the Capitol – a big white dome standing on a circle of pillars. The members of the Congress meet here to discuss the nation’s affairs. It’s easy to get lost in this huge building, full of paintings and statues.

Washington is a busy city. The streets are practically never empty. Wherever you go you’ll see either big or small shops in which you can buy whatever you like.

Washington, D.C. has a diversified economy. The city has growing industry unrelated to government, especially in the areas of education, finance and scientific research.

Washington, D.C. is a national center for the arts. The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts is home to the National Symphony Orchestra, the Washington National Opera, and the Washington Ballet.

The weather in Washington is changeable. Mark Twain described it as follows: «When you arrived (at the station at night) it was snowing. When you reached the hotel it was sleeting. When you went to bed it was raining. During the night it froze hard and the wind blew some chimneys down. When you got up in the morning, it was foggy. When you finished your breakfast at ten o’clock and went out, the sunshine was brilliant, the weather balmy and delicious, and the mud and slush deep and all-pervading. You will like the climate – when you get used to it. »

Thousands of tourists visit Washington every day. People from all parts of the United States come to see their capital.


Ex. 12. Answer the following questions.

1. Where is the USA situated?

2. What countries does the USA border on?

3. Who discovered America?

4. What is the climate of the country?

5. What can you say about the Constitution of the USA?

6. What American dishes can you name?

7. What three branches is the government of the United States composed of?

8. What is the capital of the USA?

9. Where is the city located?

10. Why are the buildings in Washington not tall?

11. What places of interest in Washington do you know?

12. Where do the members of the Congress discuss the nation’s affairs?

Comprehension check

Ex. 1. Search the texts for the English equivalents of the word combinations.

Западное полушарие; достичь какой-то земли; обычаи и традиции; изначально употребляться во множественном числе; географические особенности; на противоположных сторонах; международные договоры; наложить вето; проводить законы в жизнь; пересматривать законы; богатые природные ресурсы; основные торговые партнеры; в возрасте пяти лет и старше; количество штатов в настоящее время; складывать особенным образом; называть в честь кого-нибудь; меньше по размеру; большой белый купол; всё, что понравится.


Ex. 2. Work in pairs. Read the statements and say if they are true or false.


A)

1. The United States is situated almost entirely in the western hemisphere.

2. The total area of the USA is about eight and a half million square kilometers.

3. The people of the United States are only from America.

4. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest and deepest in the USA.

5. The United States is a monarchy.

6. The leading export commodity of the USA is mine equipment.

7. The US national flag – Stars and Stripes – is red, white and blue.


B)

1. Washington is located on the north bank of the Thames River.

2. The city was named after the first American president.

3. There are not many monuments in Washington.

4. Washington is the largest city of the USA.

5. The streets are always empty in the city.


Ex. 3. Complete the following sentences using information from the texts.

A)

1. The United States is situated almost entirely ….

2. The country also has a sea-boarder with …. .

3. Christopher Columbus discovered America in …

4. Because of the United States' large size and wide range of geographic features, nearly every type of .… .

5. The federal government is composed of three branches: legislative, executive and …. .

6. About 215 million, or 82% of the population aged five years and older, speak only …. .


B)

1. When people speak about the capital of the USA they always say Washington DC, not to mix up with the state Washington in ..…

2. The population of the capital is about …

3. The buildings in Washington are not tall because no buildings must be taller …

4. Washington has growing industry unrelated to government, especially in the areas of education, finance and …

5. Washington, D.C. is a national center for …


Ex. 4. Rearrange the words below into grammatically accurate sentences.

1. the people, of, a mixture, different, are, nationalities, of the United States, many.

2. derive, of America, the recipes, dishes, of, immigrants, various, characteristic, from.

3. a park, a square, it, open, in Washington, or, is, area, to find, any, a monument, without, difficult.

4. in size, the United States, Washington, than, is, the largest, smaller, cities, of.


Ex. 5. Make questions to which the underlined words are the answers.

1. The United States is situated almost entirely in the western hemisphere.

2. Americans are proud of their flag and display it in many places.

3. The city is located on the north bank of the Potomac River.

4. George Washington, the first American president, chose the place where the city now stands to build the capital.

5. Washington has many famous buildings – the Library of Congress, the Capitol, the National Gallery of Art and others.


Ex. 6. Translate into English.

A)

1. США включают южную часть Северной Америки, Аляску и Гавайи.

2. Страна почти полностью расположена в западном полушарии.

3. Изначально словосочетание «Соединённые Штаты» употребляли во множественном числе.

4. Из-за большого размера Соединённых Штатов и разнообразия географических особенностей в стране представлены почти все типы климата.

5. Хотя в стране нет официального языка на федеральном уровне, некоторые законы считают стандартным английский язык.

6. Кулинарное искусство Америки напоминает кулинарию других западных стран.

7. Американцы должны знать многое о своём флаге, например то, что его следует складывать особым образом.


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